Copiague has been known by many names including "Powell's," after one of its earliest landowners, East Amityville and Great Neck. The name Copiague, derived from a Native American word meaning "sheltered place," was chosen in the 1890s.
Known then as Huntington South, President George Washington visited Copiague in 1790 during his tour of Long Island. In 1906, the Sovereign Realty Co. purchased large tracks of land north of the railroad, which were developed by John Campagnoli as the Italian-American neighborhood of "Marconiville" – named for wireless communications inventor Guglielmo Marconi.
Several other housing developments arose in the following decades, including Amity Harbor, Deauville Gardens and American Venice. Unique in concept and layout, the American Venice project was designed to emulate the grand City of Canals, Venice, Italy, complete with gondolas and bridges linking the neighborhoods. The Hawkins Estate neighborhood was once the stately residence of William E. Hawkins.
Established in 1911 as a two-story wooden schoolhouse, the Great Neck Road Elementary School is the oldest elementary school, still in use, in the Town of Babylon.